He was responsible for overseeing all Western Region offices. A KPMG diversity network. The latest news on legislative and regulatory issues affecting the hedge fund industry from Washington, D. Managed Funds Association's Hedge Fund Investor Map is a new and unique educational tool that offers a comprehensive look at the institutional hedge fund investor landscape in the U. Search Search:. These included the U. In in an effort to engage in self-regulation , 14 leading hedge fund managers developed a voluntary set of international standards in best practice and known as the Hedge Fund Standards they were designed to create a "framework of transparency, integrity and good governance" in the hedge fund industry.
Hedge funds within the US are subject to regulatory, reporting, and record-keeping requirements. In June , the U. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia overturned the rule and sent it back to the agency to be reviewed. They are required to have written compliance policies, a chief compliance officer , and their records and practices may be examined by the SEC.
Within the European Union EU , hedge funds are primarily regulated through their managers.
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According to the EU, the aim of the directive is to provide greater monitoring and control of alternative investment funds. It also directs hedge fund managers to hold larger amounts of capital. Some hedge funds are established in offshore centres such as the Cayman Islands , Dublin , Luxembourg , the British Virgin Islands , and Bermuda , which have different regulations  concerning non-accredited investors, client confidentiality, and fund manager independence.
Performance statistics for individual hedge funds are difficult to obtain, as the funds have historically not been required to report their performance to a central repository, and restrictions against public offerings and advertisement have led many managers to refuse to provide performance information publicly. However, summaries of individual hedge fund performance are occasionally available in industry journals   and databases.
Hedge Funds : Definitive Strategies and Techniques
One estimate is that the average hedge fund returned Hedge funds performance is measured by comparing their returns to an estimate of their risk. New performance measures have been introduced that attempt to address some of theoretical concerns with traditional indicators, including: modified Sharpe ratios ;   the Omega ratio introduced by Keating and Shadwick in ;  Alternative Investments Risk Adjusted Performance AIRAP published by Sharma in ;  and Kappa developed by Kaplan and Knowles in There is a debate over whether alpha the manager's skill element in performance has been diluted by the expansion of the hedge fund industry.
Two reasons are given. First, the increase in traded volume may have been reducing the market anomalies that are a source of hedge fund performance. Second, the remuneration model is attracting more managers, which may dilute the talent available in the industry. Indices that track hedge fund returns are, in order of development, called Non-investable, Investable, and Clone. They play a central and unambiguous role in traditional asset markets, where they are widely accepted as representative of their underlying portfolios.
Equity and debt index fund products provide investable access to most developed markets in these asset classes. Hedge funds, however, are actively managed, so that tracking is impossible. Non-investable hedge fund indices on the other hand may be more or less representative, but returns data on many of the reference group of funds is non-public. This may result in biased estimates of their returns. In an attempt to address this problem, clone indices have been created in an attempt to replicate the statistical properties of hedge funds without being directly based on their returns data.
None of these approaches achieves the accuracy of indices in other asset classes for which there is more complete published data concerning the underlying returns.
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Non-investable indices are indicative in nature, and aim to represent the performance of some database of hedge funds using some measure such as mean, median, or weighted mean from a hedge fund database. The databases have diverse selection criteria and methods of construction, and no single database captures all funds.
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This leads to significant differences in reported performance between different indices. Although they aim to be representative, non-investable indices suffer from a lengthy and largely unavoidable list of biases. Funds' participation in a database is voluntary, leading to self-selection bias because those funds that choose to report may not be typical of funds as a whole.
For example, some do not report because of poor results or because they have already reached their target size and do not wish to raise further money.. The short lifetimes of many hedge funds means that there are many new entrants and many departures each year, which raises the problem of survivorship bias. If we examine only funds that have survived to the present, we will overestimate past returns because many of the worst-performing funds have not survived, and the observed association between fund youth and fund performance suggests that this bias may be substantial.
When a fund is added to a database for the first time, all or part of its historical data is recorded ex-post in the database. It is likely that funds only publish their results when they are favorable, so that the average performances displayed by the funds during their incubation period are inflated. This is known as "instant history bias" or "backfill bias".
Investable indices are an attempt to reduce these problems by ensuring that the return of the index is available to shareholders. To create an investable index, the index provider selects funds and develops structured products or derivative instruments that deliver the performance of the index. When investors buy these products the index provider makes the investments in the underlying funds, making an investable index similar in some ways to a fund of hedge funds portfolio.
To make the index investable, hedge funds must agree to accept investments on the terms given by the constructor. To make the index liquid, these terms must include provisions for redemptions that some managers may consider too onerous to be acceptable. This means that investable indices do not represent the total universe of hedge funds. Most seriously, they under-represent more successful managers, who typically refuse to accept such investment protocols. The most recent addition to the field approach the problem in a different manner. Instead of reflecting the performance of actual hedge funds they take a statistical approach to the analysis of historic hedge fund returns, and use this to construct a model of how hedge fund returns respond to the movements of various investable financial assets.
This model is then used to construct an investable portfolio of those assets.
This makes the index investable, and in principle they can be as representative as the hedge fund database from which they were constructed. However, these clone indices rely on a statistical modelling process. Such indices have too short a history to state whether this approach will be considered successful. In March , HFR — a hedge fund research data and service provider — reported that there were more hedge-fund closures in than during the recession. There were hedge fund launches in , fewer than the opened in , and dramatically fewer than the launches in Systemic risk refers to the risk of instability across the entire financial system , as opposed to within a single company.
Such risk may arise following a destabilizing event or events affecting a group of financial institutions linked through investment activity. As it happens, no financial assistance was provided to LTCM by the US Federal Reserve , so there was no direct cost to US taxpayers,  but a large bailout had to be mounted by a number of financial institutions.
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However, these claims are widely disputed by the financial industry,  who typically regard hedge funds as " small enough to fail ", since most are relatively small in terms of the assets they manage and operate with low leverage, thereby limiting the potential harm to the economic system should one of them fail. Nevertheless, although hedge funds go to great lengths to reduce the ratio of risk to reward, inevitably a number of risks remain.
In addition, while most hedge funds make only modest use of leverage, hedge funds differ from many other market participants, such as banks and mutual funds, in that there are no regulatory constraints on their use of leverage, and some hedge funds seek large amounts of leverage as part of their market strategy.
The extensive use of leverage can lead to forced liquidations in a crisis, particularly for hedge funds that invest at least in part in illiquid investments. The close interconnectedness of the hedge funds with their prime brokers, typically investment banks, can lead to domino effects in a crisis, and indeed failing counterparty banks can freeze hedge funds. These systemic risk concerns are exacerbated by the prominent role of hedge funds in the financial markets. An August survey by the Financial Services Authority concluded that risks were limited and had reduced as a result, inter alia , of larger margins being required by counterparty banks, but might change rapidly according to market conditions.
In stressed market conditions, investors might suddenly withdraw large sums, resulting in forced asset sales. This might cause liquidity and pricing problems if it occurred across a number of funds or in one large highly leveraged fund. Hedge funds are structured to avoid most direct regulation although their managers may be regulated , and are not required to publicly disclose their investment activities, except to the extent that investors generally are subject to disclosure requirements.
This is in contrast to a regulated mutual fund or exchange-traded fund , which will typically have to meet regulatory requirements for disclosure. An investor in a hedge fund usually has direct access to the investment adviser of the fund, and may enjoy more personalized reporting than investors in retail investment funds.
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